FTTX Concepts and Applications [Gerd Keiser] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book presents fundamental passive optical network. This book presents fundamental passive optical network (PON)concepts, providing you with the tools needed to understand,design, and build. FTTX concepts and applications / by Gerd Keiser. p. cm. — (Wiley series in telecommunications and signal processing) “A Wiley-Interscience publication.
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FTTX Concepts and Applications
The ATM service classes have the following characteristics: Typically, these two paths do not overlap at any point, so that a cable cut applkcations Working fiber Traffic Traffic source destination destination Protection fiber Figure 9.
These two nonlinear processes are not a major concern for PONs. However, a derived unit can be used for this. Suggested alternative spacings in G. Controls the registration of newly joined ONTs. Some key func- tions of an OLT include the following: The dis- tribution cables originate at the optical splitter. The term noise describes unwanted components of a signal that tend to disturb the transmission and processing of the signal in a physical sys- tem.
Photo cour- tesy of Lightwaves; www. The pur- pose of fragmentation is to send packets from a user efficiently regardless of their size and to recover the original packet format fttxx from the physical layer transmission windows on the GPON.
Four header fields and payload of the GEM segment. As shown in Figure 8. Traffic patterns Assured bandwidth a Assured bandwidth b Nonassured bandwidth Maximum bandwidth Assured bandwidth c Figure 7.
A planar optical wave- guide device often is referred to as a planar lightwave circuit PLC.
A traditional approach to setting up a protocol is to subdivide it into a number of individual pieces of manageable and comprehensible size. Receiver sensitivities at several different wavelengths of silicon and InGaAs pin and avalanche photodiodes as a function of bit rate. For example, glass is optically denser than air. Thus, the responsivity is a linear function of the optical power. The data rates can be either symmetrical the same rate in both directions or asym- metrical, with higher rates being sent downstream from the OLT to the ONTs.
Wiley-IEEE Press: FTTX Concepts and Applications – Gerd Keiser
LC connectors are available in either a simplex or b duplex configurations. The performances are given for and nm operation.
Photodetector response to an optical pulse showing the 10 to 90 percent rise time and the 90 to 10 percent fall time. The logarithmic nature of the decibel allows a large ratio to be expressed in a fairly ny manner. This process thus builds up the photon density in the gain region until lasing occurs.
This could be the original sending station or the most recent router that received and forwarded the packet. Included in such a package would be optical source modules, photodetection modules, a passive device for combining and separating the individual wavelengths, digital clock and data recovery interfaces for data and voice, alarm detection and laser shutdown gwrd, and video receiver circuitry.
Large distance variations of customers cincepts the central office result in different sig- nal power losses across the PON. Consider parameters for an OLT such as automatic ONT provisioning, LLID assignments, dynamic bandwidth allocation, ability to assign operational parameter values based on service level agreements, and element management capabilities.
Up to 32 distribution branches leave the splitter and interface to ONTs. Estimated curves of chromatic dispersion as a function of wavelength for several different fiber types. These installations include shelters located at a curb or in a centralized place within an office park. This connector is half the size of an SC connector. Thus, an indoor UPS is much less expensive and more reliable than an out- door supply, which is exposed to harsher environments.
Next, in Section 9. There is no need for the service provider to create an expensive and complex powering grid, since FTTP subscribers supply their own electricity.
In FEC techniques, redundant information is transmitted along with the original information.
The key parameters include the following: Representation of the critical angles and total internal reflection at a glass-to-air interface. Passive optical components play important roles in PONs, since they do not require an external source of energy to perform an opera- tion or transformation on an optical signal. This is done by selecting narrow-wavelength bands from the spectral region ranging across the O-band through the L-band.
For example, the bias voltage from a power supply provides the externally pumped energy in a semiconductor laser.
In addition, we examine the applications of passive optical networks to various types of neighbor- hoods, show where optical power splitters can be placed in the network, describe how various clusters of facilities can be connected, examine options for local indoor and outdoor electrical powering solutions, and discuss what current and emerging applications can be expected to run over the network.
Typically, it is located about 10 km 30, ft from the central office or within 1 fytx ft from the sub- scribers in a housing neighborhood, a business park, or some other campus. The document includes BPON surviv- ability architectures, protection performance criteria, and protection-switching criteria and protocols.
Not shown in Figure 2. Forouzan, Introduction to Data Communications and Networking, 2nd ed.
(Gerd keiser) fttx concepts and applications | kevin jaldin –
However, since the GEM is a connection-oriented protocol, it can be managed using the same entities and methodologies as are used for the ATM transport service. Generic attenuation-versus-wavelength curve for a silica optical fiber.
The basis of this burst-mode transmitter function is the topic of Section 4. Frequency spectrum used by an HFC network. Equally important is the requirement that during the operation of a system these peak wavelengths do not drift into the spectral territory occupied by adjacent channels. This ex- presses the power level P as a logarithmic ratio of P referred to 1 mW. Similarly, the ONT needs to have electric con- nections for telephone, Internet, and video services to the customer premises.